(KODE : PENDBING-0017) : SKRIPSI THE USE OF GUESSING GAME IN TEACHING SPEAKING
This chapter elaborates background, research questions, aims of study, limitation of study, hypothesis, research methodology which presents four parts namely research design, population and sample, data collection, data analysis. Moreover, clarification of the term and organization of the study are in the end of the chapter.
Speaking is included in productive aspect as a communicative competence, in which means that there is a process to conceptualize data happen in a brain then produce it as an orally information. In line with the statement, Harmer (2001) says that the ability to speak fluently presupposes not only knowledge of language features, but also the ability to process information and language 'on the spot'.
Learning speaking means learning an interactive processing of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information, stated by Brown (1994) quoted by Florez (1999). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context, participants' experiences, physical environment, and the purposes of speaking.
Like three other categories of language performances; listening, reading and writing, speaking is viewed as the significant one. Speaking is a sort of productive skill which is used in oral model. It means that through speaking people produce words, expressions, or utterances to express our ideas and feelings as well as to respond towards particular situations.
It is in line with Kartimi (1986 : 38) that speaking is an instrument for communicating thought, feeling, idea and intention to other people through spoken language, in order that what we say can be understood by the listeners.
Speaking is a way of expressing ourselves in whatever language we use. The most motivating language to learn therefore enables us to talk in a way that is true to our personality. As described by Hendarsyah (2003) cited in Mulgrave and Tarigan (1987 : 24), speaking is defined as a tool for conveying (message) almost directly to figure out whether or not it is understood by the listener and whether or not the materials are comprehended by both the speaker and listener.As one of language skills, speaking competence in English subject is taught in Vocational School (SMK) for the English Teaching-Learning requirement. In terms of level, Vocational School has the same grade with Senior High School. This study observes the second graders which are in Elementary Level with Competence Standard that is to communicate English which is equal to Elementary Level. Furthermore, Basic Competence is to comprehend daily conversation in professional and personal context.
The language teaching success has something to do with teacher's involvement to improve students' speaking ability. Therefore, teacher needs some efforts to attain that purpose, one of them is by doing the arrangement procedures as Lynch and Anderson (1992) states :
All the speaking tasks involve three elements : preparation, performance, and feedback. They have been designed to make you think as well as speak and listen. Becoming a more effective communicator is not simply. It is a matter of practicing the spoken comes from planning how to approach a speaking task and evaluating how well you spoke.
One of alternative technique used in teaching speaking is guessing game technique, in which students are expected to be involved actively in speaking class activity. Guessing game which is adopted from a television and radio game can create the teaching-learning situation based on the students' excitement of playing game. Thus, students are much courage in thinking what they want to say.
Through guessing game, students are provided by a set of well-arranged activities as follows : an object's picture is shown to the chairperson; in addition the chairperson tells a clue to the team that the object is household tools, clothes, vehicles or any other stuff. In finding the answer of what the object is, the team should ask yes or no questions to the chairperson, for instance "is it for helping us?" Therefore, the chairperson is allowed only to say 'yes' or 'no'. The team will get point if they guess the answer by having twenty questions or more.
There are some tasks that teacher can instruct to the students to do the activities in guessing game. Byrne (1987 : 21) says as follows : name of the object, spell the object, say something about the object, give one or more uses for the object, say what they would do with the object if they had it, and make up sentence using the object.
In conducting this kind of game, teacher and students can work each other to build a good atmosphere of teaching-learning process in class. This technique requires teacher to facilitate students with some new chunks, it also gives a chairperson an experience to process his/her peers' speaking in front of class. Meanwhile, for the rest, this game motivates them to make a question with loud and clear voice and then explore some new chunks and language exposure in one time.
This study is expected to have some contributions to the language teaching-learning process, especially for teaching speaking in Vocational School. Therefore, it serves as an alternative in teaching speaking strategies in order to improve students' speaking ability.
1.2 Research questions
This study is conducted to reveal the following research questions :
1. Is guessing game effective in improving students' speaking ability?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Guessing Game technique from the students' point of view?
3. What strategies do the students use to overcome obstacles in learning speaking by using Guessing Game?
1.3 Aims of Study
This study is aimed at :
1. Finding out whether guessing game is effective in improving students' speaking ability.
2. Finding out the advantages and disadvantages of Guessing Game technique from the students' point of view.
3. Finding out the strategies used to overcome the obstacles in learning speaking by using Guessing Game technique.
1.4 Limitation of Study
This study emphasizes on the effectiveness of the use of Guessing Game in teaching speaking. The study will be conducted in SMKN X by selecting two classes in same level of speaking as a control group and an experimental group. Furthermore, this study is hopefully able to give an alternative teaching model in teaching speaking.
1.5 Clarification of the Term
In order to avoid unnecessary misinterpretations, some terms are clarified as follows.
1. Guessing Game is a game in which class divided into four groups, one chairperson is given a picture of the object, and then tells a group that the object is household tools, clothes, vehicles or any other stuff. The groups are required to find the answer by asking yes or no questions, for at least twenty questions. A group which has made twenty questions and answered correctly will be the winner.
2. Speaking is the ability of speaker to convey message to the hearer in intention to be understood by the hearer, as well as the capability of expressing ideas, thoughts, feelings, emotions, and reactions in spoken language.
1.6 Organization of the Study
This study will begin with preface, abstract and will be divided into five chapters, namely (1) Introduction, (2) Theoretical Foundation, (3) Research Methodology, (4) Findings and Discussion, (5) Conclusion and Suggestion.
Chapter one will provide the background of the study, research questions, aims of the study, limitation of the study, research methodology, research design, population and sample, data collection, data analysis, clarification of terms, and organization of the paper.
Chapter two will focus on the review of related theories and literatures related to Speaking, Teaching Speaking in Classroom, Game and Guessing Game.
Chapter three will contain further explanation about methodology of the study that has been briefly introduced in Chapter 1.
Chapter four will cover data collected, data analysis and the interpretation of the findings from the study by using certain statistical formula so that it would be easier to discuss.
Chapter five will explore the conclusion of the study and also suggestion for further study.